‘Fear Index’ Grabs Headlines as Stocks Swing: Volatility gauge yields clues on how investors are insuring their portfolios

When Robert E. Whaley settles into his home office, you can count on two things: His television will be tuned to CNBC, and he’ll be tracking the stock market’s “fear index” on his computer.

Mr. Whaley, a professor of finance at Vanderbilt University, may not be a household name. But chances are you’ve heard of the volatility index he designed, known to market watchers as the VIX.

The VIX is the most popular measure of expected short-term volatility on Wall Street. The index is computed in real time on trading days, and when it shoots up, it suggests investors fear market prices are about to move wildly.

The historical average of the VIX is around 20. Lower numbers signal that investors are confident in the strength of their investments. Higher numbers signal investor anxiety. For example, during the 2008 financial crisis, the index hit a dizzying 80, and last month, it made news when it spiked above 50 for the first time since 2009 before returning to near its long-run average.

“What you’re scared of is a drop in the value of your pension fund,” said Mr. Whaley. “The higher the VIX gets, the more fear you have the market will drop.”

The VIX reflects investors’ sentiment by tracking how much they are paying for “out-of-the-money” stock options—particularly “put” options, which provide a cushion against falling market prices.

Mr. Whaley compared it to buying insurance for a beach house.

“If a hurricane is forming and there is potential for the hurricane to hit land in the next few weeks, you are likely to pay a whole lot for insurance,” he said. “You want to protect the value of the home.”

If investors fear a storm is brewing in the stock market, they could sell their stock, but with trading fees and other costs that would be expensive. Or they could opt to protect their investment.

[metaslider id=126]
“Instead of selling your stocks, you can go out and buy insurance, and the insurance you would buy would be put options on the S&P 500.” Mr. Whaley said.

A “put” option gives someone the right to sell stock at an agreed-upon price by a certain date. The stock price specified in the contract is called the “strike” price. And if it is lower than the market value of the underlying stock, the options are “out of the money.” (A “call” option is the opposite; it gives someone the right to buy stock at an agreed-upon price by a certain date.)

“VIX is driven by the price of out-of-money calls and puts, but the calls don’t really matter,” Mr. Whaley said. “If you look at trading activity in the market, it is predominantly puts. You’re only concerned about the downside risk.”

Put options benefit investors in the event that the market price of a stock tumbles below the strike price. If it does, the investor who bought the put will collect the difference between the two values.

For example, suppose the market price of the S&P 500 portfolio was $1,951 per share, and the strike price of a put option was $1,950. If the market price falls below that threshold to, say, $1,945 before the option contract expires, the investor who purchased the put will collect $5 per share. (This doesn’t account for the cost to purchase the put option.)

If the market price doesn’t fall below the strike price before the contract expires, there is no payout.

“If the stock stays above $1,950, you’d have a situation you have with any insurance,” Mr. Whaley said. “You pay for it and never collect. You lose the premium. What you bought is the satisfaction that if there had been a drop, you would have been covered.”

Options contracts are sold by market makers who accept risk to facilitate trading. The fees they charge for the options contracts offset their own risk of having to pay off investors if the stocks do tank. So when nervous investors begin to clamor for puts, market makers raise the price.

That is what sends the VIX skyward.

“The more demand, the higher the price, and the higher the prices, the higher the VIX,” Mr. Whaley said.

Investment firms like Zacks notice the VIX, but because they look further into the future, the level of the fear gauge doesn’t alter their overall strategy, according to Bryant Sheehy, who is business development director for Zacks.

“It’s more of a way to add some sexiness to editorial articles,” he said, referring to headline-grabbing shifts in the VIX. “It’s one more data point we can mention to talk about a tough market and what opportunities are now coming up.

But for speculators—the storm chasers of the stock market—the VIX serves as a weather vane, pointing out when they should plunge into the market in search of short-term trading profits.

“Volatility is opportunity, not risk,” said Tim West, who publishes market analysis on tradingview.com, a social network for investors and traders. “Most people get that backwards.”

Sunday Review: Robert Whaley

Robert Whaley is a professor of finance at Vanderbilt University’s Owen Graduate School of Management and the developer of the two major so-called fear indices — the VIX and VXN on the Chicago Board Options Exchange — that are used to make bets on market volatility.

READING Right now it’s “Becoming Steve Jobs,” by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli. It has a somewhat different take than Walter Isaacson’s “Steve Jobs.” I felt Isaacson’s version was a little negative. But what the books have in common is that Jobs was sheer genius. So what if he was arrogant? Consider what he’s done. We wouldn’t have iPhones and iPads if it wasn’t for his vision. I absolutely think that excuses his behavior. If everyone just wanted for people to look back and say you were kind, how would we move forward?

LISTENING On my iPhone are 55 albums by Bob Dylan, 16 albums by Leonard Cohen and 34 albums by Steve Earle. That’s all I listen to. It’s the storytelling in their lyrics. Dylan’s album “Tempest” is one of his best. The title song is a haunting 14-minute song about the sinking of the Titanic. I have every one of his albums except the last one where he interprets Frank Sinatra. That was out of line. He must have needed money. And I actually bumped into Steve Earle at the airport and introduced myself. My wife was just disgusted that I’d go and bother him, but he was very receptive. No, I did not tell him I developed the volatility indices.

WATCHING Currently, it’s “Wallander,” which is a BBC crime-detective show. The main character is gruff and very deliberate in his actions, like the lead character in “Ray Donovan,” another great show. I’m also Canadian and a sucker for a good love story, so I enjoyed “Last Tango in Halifax,” which is about a couple who were in love in high school, separated and then reunited in their 70s. I guarantee it will bring tears to your eyes.

FOLLOWING Through the digital library JSTOR, I have online access to hundreds of finance and economics journals. There are many articles written on volatility, but often they try to come up with more and more sophisticated statistical models, which don’t capture what’s at the heart of the problem. It’s a Chicken Little mentality caused by one piece of information, like the market slide in China, getting reported and re-reported and each time exaggerated a little bit further and then you saw what happened — a 1,000-point drop in the Dow. It’s kind of frightening.

TRADING The amount of trading going on is just much too high in my view. With automated algorithmic trading, we’ve gotten ourselves into a bit of a pickle. I was reading that some hedge fund made more than $1 billion as a result of the recent market dive by essentially trading on volatility. They made a bunch of money because everyone overreacted. I didn’t see the spike in volatility coming so I got hammered.

PUBBING My wife and I have a passion for Ireland and travel there at least twice a year. We enjoy the Irish people and the music so much, we built an Irish pub in our basement. Naturally Guinness is on tap, as are Harp and Kilkenny. When I teach, I bring the whole class over one evening, and it’s usually the thing they remember from going through the M.B.A. program. St. Patrick’s Day is our biggest celebration with more than 60 people enjoying Guinness stew, shepherd’s pie, seafood chowder and Irish brown bread, which my wife and I prepare. If you want to see it, our son created a website: WhaleyTavern.com.